Adherence to medicines across a wide range of conditions remains a problem and averages at around 50%. Non-adherence leads to poor health outcomes and increased healthcare costs.
Non-adherence has multifactorial reasons; these reasons need to be identified and understood to improve medication adherence. We have a long-standing interest in understanding these reasons and exploring why people may not take medicines as prescribed. This enables us to find ways to help people get the most from their treatments.
We use two types of tools to understand patients’ behaviours and support their change when necessary. The first are Conceptual Frameworks the second Questionnaires and Scales.
Conceptualisation of these reasons of non-adherence into frameworks helps ensure that all important aspects of an issue are examined. It helps to structure interventions so they give the best possibility of success. The Conceptual Frameworks we most commonly use are:
- 3 Components of Behaviour Change (3CBC)™
- Perceptions and Practicalities (PAPA)™
- Necessity and Concerns Framework (NCF)™
- 3 Dimensions of Side Effects (3D-SE)™
Questionnaires and Scales
Our questionnaires and scales are designed to differentiate between important reasons of non-adherence for individuals and can help predict people’s behaviour in relation to their medicines.
These questionnaires and scales are built on an understanding of the psychological reasons behind patients’ non-adherence and have been scientifically tested and used in a variety of contexts.
All our questionnaires and scales cover various health conditions, populations and have been produced in many different languages. The most commonly used are:
- Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)™
- Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS)™
- Treatment-related Empowerment Scale (TES)™
- Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS)™
- Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ)™